This is the accidental loss of urine against one’s control. It affects up to 15% of women and 5% of men in their mid-40’s. It increases with age. There are various causes. For example, Overactive Bladder (urge incontinence), weak muscles / pelvic floor (e.g. stress incontinence after childbirth), a mixture of the two conditions, neurological causes, i.e. neuropathic bladder due to Parkinson’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal injury or spina bifida), surgery (e.g. radical prostatectomy) or ‘overflow’ due to prostate enlargement resulting in a very full bladder. Depends on the cause, there are simple effective treatment available. This includes pelvic floor exercise taught by a specialist physiotherapist, life style adjustment (drinks, caffeine), medication, minimally-invasive surgery (e.g. injection, tension-free vaginal tape, trans-obturator tape).